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forgery [2012/10/01 01:11]
mcmaster
forgery [2013/10/20 10:59]
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-====== Motivation ====== 
-Manufacturing and testing can be expensive. 
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-====== Sources ====== 
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-===== Rejects ===== 
-Some "​forgeries"​ may be the real deal.  Sometimes people are able to dumpster dive or acquire the wafers surplus. ​ A lot of cost is in the manufacturing and testing. ​ If something moderately works its easier to move.  This attack is however more limited in that its typically based on targets of opportunity rather than targeting a specific chip.  Additionally,​ it requires access to bonding, packaging, and laser markers. 
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-Its not uncommon for manufacturers to shred old wafers to prevent this sort of forgery. 
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-===== Re-marking ===== 
-Probably the easier route. ​ The attacker either finds some surplus chips cheap or maybe something that doesn'​t work at all and then marks them up to a more expensive chip. 
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-Simple testing can find blatant forgeries. ​ Parts screening may be required to find quality differences and can be difficult to prove to your supplier. 
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-===== Clones ===== 
-Some clones are clearly marked, others aren'​t. ​ Someone extremely knowledgeable can usually tell based on fine differences in package marking but most consumers won't have this level of knowledge. ​ Some dies are copied verbatim and so may look identical even close up. 
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-====== Organizations ====== 
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-===== DMEA ===== 
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-http://​www.dmea.osd.mil/​ 
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-United States DoD maintains the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA). 
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-===== ERAI ===== 
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-http://​www.erai.com/​ 
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-"ERAI is a privately held global information services organization that monitors, investigates and reports issues that are affecting the global supply chain of electronics."​ 
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-===== IDEA ===== 
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-http://​idofea.org/​ 
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-"The Independent Distributors of Electronics Association (IDEA) is a non-profit trade association representing quality and ethically oriented independent distributors of electronic components. The purpose of IDEA is to promote the independent distribution industry through a media advocacy campaign, to improve the quality of products and services through a quality certification program, educational seminars, and conferences,​ and to promote the study, development,​ and implementation of techniques and methods designed to improve the business of independent distributors."​ 
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-====== See also ====== 
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-[[Sabotage]] 
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-====== References ====== 
-  * DMEA: http://​www.dmea.osd.mil/​trustedic.html 
-  * SparkFun Atmega328 slug: http://​www.sparkfun.com/​products/​9831 
-  * http://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=5O4jslHi4pE 
-  * http://​counterfeitwatch.blogspot.com/​ 
-  * National trying to scare you http://​www.national.com/​vcm/​NSC_Content/​Files/​en_US/​Milaero/​TrustedFoundryOverview.pdf 
-  * Preventing integrated circuit piracy using reconfigurable logic barriers: http://​archives.ece.iastate.edu/​archive/​00000512/​01/​AlexBaumgarten_Thesis.pdf 
  
 
forgery.txt ยท Last modified: 2013/10/20 10:59 (external edit)
 
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